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Normatividade e valor moral:. Moral Normativity:. Aceptado: 20 de mayo de ]. One of the most obscure problems in universalists ethics, in general, and in Kantian ethics, in particular, consists in a justification of a objectively valid principle from the connection between the question of the epistemology and the moral motivation. From this, our purpose in this paper is to try to clarify how the feeling of respect connects figures as practical reason, moral value and autonomy, both from a historical perspective as hermeneutics of Kantian texts. Nagel, , p.
Nozick, R. Normatividade e valor moral: sobre a necessidade do sentimento moral. Kant, I.
Herausgegeben von Wilhelm Weischedel. Wiesbaden: Insel Verlag, Lisboa, Ed. Ou seja, se sustentamos que o cumprimento do. Schiller, F. Respeito, valor e pluralismo moral. Korsgaard, C. In: Journal of. O primeiro significa o interesse. Chagas, F. Forst, R. Habermas, J. Wiesbaden: Insel Verlag. Nagel, T. Putnam, H.
Fundamentación critica de la doctrina de Hans Kelsen
Sen, A. The aim of this paper is twofold. Second, to apply my interpretation of the sublime and ugliness to contemporary art, and to resolve certain issues that have been raised in accounting for the possibility of artistic sublimity. I argue that an experience of a genuine artistic sublimity is an uncommon occurrence. E-mail for contact:. It is without a doubt characteristic for contemporary art scene that it can no longer be described as beautiful. Prima facie , this is not surprising considering how Kant explains the sublime, namely, as an experience of displeasure caused by the perceptual and imaginative incomprehensibility of the object, yet which we overcome by turning to the faculty of reason and its ideas such as ideas of freedom, morality, humanity etc.
Such an explanation of the sublime presumably fits well with the distinctive character of contemporary art, namely, being one of initial displeasure due to the discomforting perceptual features of the art work, yet also one of indirect pleasure derived from the value of ideas communicated by an art work.
Fundamentación critica de la doctrina de hans kelsen spanish edition b00w9a8bau
Mojca Kuplen. Those who argue that no sublimity in art can be encountered emphasize the perceptual criteria of the sublime, namely, that sublime can be occasioned only by objects that are overwhelming in size and power, producing thereby a feeling of phenomenal insignificance in us.
Since art works do not have such properties - they have defined limits and we do not find them threatening in any way, they do not have the capacity to produce the sublime Guyer , p. On the other hand, those who argue for the possibility of artistic sublimity interpret the sublime primarily as a mental activity, which does not necessarily require the presence of external objects i.
Since ideas of reason can be expressed through an art work as suggested by. Kant in his theory of art and aesthetic ideas , thus art works can elicit sublime Crowther. References to Immanuel Kant are given in the text to the volume and page number of the standard German.
References to the Critique of Pure Reason Kritik der reinenVernunft are to the standard A and B pagination of the first and second editions. References are also given, after a comma, to the English translation of Critique of the Power of Judgment Kritik der Urteilskraft , ed. Paul Guyer, trans. Myskya pp. Considering that many examples of art works that have been described as sublime have also been judged by some as ugly or even disgusting, it is reasonable to ask the question as to how we can distinguish between the sublime and the ugly.
In the case of the sublime this struggle is caused by the perception of objects of great size and powers that occasion the idea of limitlessness in us, such as shapeless mountain masses, massive glaciers, dark and raging sea, erupting volcanos, devastating hurricanes, etc.
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This failure of the imagination produces the feeling of displeasure. But also experience of ugliness involves an element of frustration in grasping rich yet, chaotic and disintegrated structure of the object.
bradmimarfurt.ga Consider for example certain kind of animals that we usually judge as ugly, such as the monstrous looking and repulsive angler fish, with its exceptionally large mouth, long, sharp teeth and a shiny lure coming out of its head. Or, for example, the utterly disturbing appearance of an animal called naked mole rat, with its large front teeth, sealed lips behind the teeth and pink, wrinkled, almost completely hairless skin. We judge such animals ugly because we find arrangement of their features discomforting and offensive to our perception, as if composed from incongruent.
The displeasure at seeing such animals is accompanied with the feeling of incorrectness due to a combination of features that ought not to be combined in such a way. The perceptual features of an ugly object are too obtrusive and chaotic which makes it difficult for our cognitive abilities to process and to find a resolution for it.
But what is distinctive for the sublime, in comparison to ugliness, is that such contrapurposiveness reveals a subjective purposive relationship between imagination and reason, which results in the feeling of pleasure.
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Unfortunately, Kant does not offer an answer to this question. There are two main objections to the idea that pure judgments of ugliness are possible. But free harmony produces pleasure. But this means that that the universal state of mind of judgments of taste can only be the state of mind that produces pleasure.
Consequently, judgments of taste are judgments of the beautiful alone. The second objection was made by Guyer , p. This indeed is the view of Herman Parret , p. According to his position both sublime and ugliness are aesthetic responses to formless objects i. Furthermore, it follows from his account that sublimity appears to consist of a temporal sequence of two separate feelings, displeasure of ugliness and pleasure of reason, while Kant presented the feeling of the sublime as a rather single and complex feeling, identified with the feeling of respect.
Even though Kant does not offer a clear distinction between ugliness and sublimity, his analysis of the notion of the sublime in comparison to beauty nevertheless indicates that he considered sublimity to be a theoretically and phenomenologically different aesthetic concept than ugliness. This is the thesis that I will argue for in the rest of this paper. The possibility of a state mind of sheer disharmony, required for judgments of ugliness, is therefore epistemologically precluded. See: Wenzel , pp. In the Critique of the Power of Judgment Kant puts forward a view that a beautiful object exhibits subjective purposiveness.
In short, an object is subjectively purposive if it occasions in us the state of mind of free harmony between imagination and understanding, the two faculties of the mind that are responsible for our ordinary ability to cognize object. While the imagination synthesizes the sensible manifold, the understanding on the other hand, unifies the manifold under the concept of the object. Kant explains this procedure of bringing sensible manifold to concepts i.
Both ordinary cognition and perception of a beautiful object satisfy the need of the power of judgment to attain the harmony between cognitive powers, the difference being that in the latter case no concept is applied to the sensible manifold i. On the other hand, Kant also distinguishes a state of mind of free disharmony. For example, he writes:. We come across to the same idea in his Anthropology , where he states:.
When cognitive powers are in a disharmony i. In other words, the object fails to agree with the need of the power of judgment to find harmony in the world. The dissatisfaction of this need produces the feeling of displeasure. Even though Kant does not explicitly say so, there is reason to assume that such a disharmonious state of mind is one that grounds judgments of ugliness. While in the case of beauty, mutual correspondence of cognitive powers prolong the process of their play, and accordingly, it prolongs aesthetic attention when we are delighted by an object, we want to remain in this state of mind , in the case of ugliness, the mutual hindrance or frustration between the cognitive powers obstructs their free play, thereby causing us to withdraw attention or to turn away from an ugly object.
But, according to Kant also sublime objects exhibit subjective contrapurposiveness , p.
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This is so because of the distinctive character of sublime objects, namely being one of exhibiting certain kind of greatness, either in size or in power. When the object is overwhelming in size, then the experience is called mathematically sublime. For example, the enormous structure of the pyramids in Egypt or the immense Himalayan Mountain massif are typical mathematically sublime objects since they are too vast and difficult for us to perceive them all at once.